Vortex Tube Phenomenon
The principal mechanism of the vortex phenomenon can be described in the following manner.
An expanding gas after passing the tangential nozzle develops into a high speed rotating body or a vortex.
- An angular velocity in the vortex is low at the periphery zone and very high toward the center zone.
- Friction between the central and periphery zones reduces all the gas to the same angular velocity as in a solid body. This causes the inner layers to slow down and the outer layers to speed up.
- As a result, the inner layers lose part of their kinetic energy and their total temperature decreases.
- The periphery layers receive the energy from the internal layers. This energy converts to heat through friction on the vortex tube's walls.